Carl Iver Hovland (June 12, 1912 – April 16, 1961) was a psychologist working primarily at Yale University and the US Army during World War II who studied attitude change and persuasion.
Carl Iver Hovland was born in Chicago, Illinois on June 12, 1912. He attended Lloyd school in Chicago, and received his high school diploma at Luther Institute. He was admitted into Northwestern University when he was 16, receiving his Bachelor's degree in 1932. He was then admitted into Yale, where he received his Ph.D. He first reported the sleeper effect after studying the effects of the Frank Capra propaganda film Why We Fight on soldiers while at the Army. In later studies on this subject, Hovland collaborated with Irving Janis who would later become famous for his theory of groupthink. In 1938 he married Gertrude Raddatz. She was a piano student, like Hovland, in Chicago.
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